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How Solar Panels Are Made? You Won’t Believe The Process!

Solar panels have emerged as a game-changing technology that will help us transition toward a more environmentally sustainable future. They are gaining greater prominence amid a backdrop of increasing concerns about global climate change and rising pressure to reduce emissions. While many people are familiar with the concept of solar panels and the role they could play in climate change mitigation, have you ever wondered how this technology, capable of harnessing sunlight and converting it into electricity, is actually made?

This article will delve into the intricate process of how solar panels are made, outlining the transformation from raw materials to the panels that power our homes and businesses. It will also look into the future trajectory of solar panel manufacturing, highlighting the current innovations and technology trends.

While both concentrating solar-thermal systems and photovoltaic (PV) systems are technologies that harness solar energy (for more info on both technologies and their differences, click here), most solar manufacturing and deployment in recent years has been related to PV systems. This article will focus on how PV panels are made.

How Are Solar Panels Made?: The Key Components

At a basic level, a solar panel is made of several vital parts:

1) Solar photovoltaic (PV) cells – these arguably form the most crucial element of the solar panel, and will be looked at in closer detail in due course.

2) Aluminum frame – The frame is a structural component made of materials like aluminum. It surrounds the edges of the PV module and provides support and protection. The frame enhances the module’s durability and enables easy installation by allowing the module to be mounted securely on various surfaces, such as rooftops or ground-mounted structures.

3) Toughened glass – The glass layer serves as the front cover of the solar module. It provides protection to the underlying solar cells from environmental factors like dust, moisture, and physical damage. The glass is designed to be transparent to allow sunlight to pass through and reach the solar cells while keeping them shielded.

4) Encapsulation EVA film layers – EVA (Ethylene-Vinyl Acetate) is a type of encapsulant material that is placed between the solar cells and the back sheet. Its main purpose is to adhere the cells to the back sheet and provide a layer of insulation. EVA also acts as a barrier against moisture and helps to prevent potential electrical short circuits within the module.

5) Polymer rear back sheet – The back sheet is the protective layer on the backside of the solar module. It provides additional insulation and protection for the solar cells against moisture and other environmental factors. The back sheet also contributes to the structural integrity of the module and helps to maintain the module’s efficiency and performance over its lifespan.

6) A junction box made of diodes and connectors – The junction box, situated on the backside of the panel, is a compact, weather-resistant compartment. Its purpose is to provide a secure attachment point for the necessary cables that link the panels together. This component holds significance because it serves as the central hub where all cell sets connect and must be safeguarded against moisture and debris.

An image showing the key components of a solar panel.

When these components are assembled together, they form a solar PV module capable of generating electricity from sunlight. These modules can be interconnected to create larger solar arrays, which can generate higher amounts of electricity suitable for various applications, from residential rooftops to large-scale solar farms.

A Spotlight On Solar Cells

Among the components, the most important part of a panel is the solar PV cells – these cells harness sunlight and convert it into usable energy.

PV cells are fashioned from silicon crystalline wafers, which can either be polycrystalline or monocrystalline. The most efficient variant is monocrystalline, created via the Czochralski process. While highly efficient, this method demands more energy, thus increasing production costs. In contrast, polycrystalline wafers are less efficient. They’re generated using purification steps followed by a simpler casting method that’s more economical.

  • Monocrystalline silicon cells: Highest efficiency, highest cost.
  • Polycrystalline silicon cells: Lower efficiency, lowest cost.
Image showing two types of cells used in solar - monocrystalline and polycrystalline cells

How Are Solar Panels Made?: From Sand To Cells

From sand to ingots and eventually wafers, each step in the solar cell manufacturing process is essential in transforming silicon into functional solar PV cells that convert sunlight into electricity. Here is the process of how solar cells are made:

Sand (Silica) – Metallurgical Grade Silicon (MG-Si): The process begins with silica sand, which is composed of silicon dioxide (SiO2). This sand is abundant in nature and serves as the primary source of silicon, a key material for solar PV cells. The silica sand, also known as quartzite, is then processed to create metallurgical-grade silicon. In this step, the sand is mixed with carbon and heated to extremely high temperatures in an electric arc furnace. The carbon reduces the silicon dioxide to produce metallurgical-grade silicon, which is around 99% pure. Metallurgical-grade silicon can then be further refined to produce polysilicon.

Ingot Formation: Doping and ingot formation are integral processes used in the production of both polysilicon and monocrystalline silicon solar cells.

  • Polysilicon Cells: The process involves taking the refined polysilicon material and introducing trace elements like boron or phosphorous to create P-type or N-type silicon. This controlled introduction of dopants imparts the necessary electrical characteristics to the silicon, allowing it to function as a semiconductor. The doped polysilicon is then melted and cast into ingots, which serve as the starting point for the creation of solar wafers.
  • Monocrystalline Cells: Similarly, in the manufacturing of monocrystalline silicon cells, the process starts with the creation of a silicon seed crystal. This seed crystal is dipped into molten polysilicon, and as it’s slowly pulled out, a single crystal structure forms around it. This single crystal ingot is then doped to create the desired electrical properties, leading to the formation of monocrystalline wafers.

Ingot Slicing Into Wafers: The ingots are sliced into thin wafers using a process called wire sawing. A diamond-coated wire cuts through the ingot, producing individual wafers. These wafers are typically circular and relatively thin, like a piece of paper.

Due to its inherent shininess, pure silicon has the ability to reflect sunlight. To mitigate the loss of sunlight, an anti-reflective coating is applied onto the surface of the silicon wafer.

Solar Cells: Every wafer undergoes a treatment process, accompanied by the addition of metal conductors on both surfaces. These conductors form a grid-like matrix, enabling efficient conversion of solar energy into electricity. The coating applied ensures sunlight absorption instead of reflection. Within a chamber resembling an oven, a thin phosphorus layer is diffused across the wafer surfaces. This imparts a negative electrical charge to the surface. The amalgamation of boron and phosphorus establishes the essential positive-negative junction vital for properly operating the PV cell.

The rectangle-shaped solar cells are interconnected through soldering, employing metal connectors for cell-to-cell linking. Solar panels consist of solar cells seamlessly integrated in a matrix-style arrangement. Racking is then done, whereby a specific framework or structure is used to mount and position solar panels to capture sunlight optimally and efficiently.

Step by step process showing how solar panels are made

How Are Solar Panels Made?: Production & Assembly

Solar panels come together in state-of-the-art manufacturing facilities, where automated robotic machinery and sensors work hand in hand to achieve precise component placement with utmost accuracy.

Throughout the production journey, advanced optical and imaging sensors carefully examine the panels and cells. They aim to confirm precise component placement and ensure the delicate cell wafers remain intact, free from harm or cracks. Depending on the manufacturer, the last phase of panel assembly involves comprehensive testing, which may include electroluminescent (EL) or flash testing. This meticulous process aims to pinpoint any cell defects that could result in failures when subjected to years of sunlight and elevated temperatures.

The time it takes to make a solar panel can vary depending on several factors, including the type of panel, the manufacturing method, and the production capacity of the manufacturer. According to our research, on average, it takes around 2 to 3 days to manufacture a standard solar panel. This timeframe includes the various stages of production, such as wafer production, cell manufacturing, module assembly, and quality testing.

As global demand for clean energy intensifies, research and development efforts are focusing on enhancing the efficiency, durability, and scalability of solar panels. Engineers and scientists are exploring advanced materials that can optimize light absorption and minimize energy losses, thereby elevating overall conversion efficiency. Nanotechnology, for instance, holds immense potential in engineering materials at the nanoscale to enhance energy capture and durability.

Innovations in manufacturing techniques are also emerging as game-changers. Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is making strides in producing intricate and customized solar panel components. This approach not only streamlines the manufacturing process but also opens doors to architectural integration and design flexibility.

Integrating artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning is yet another dimension propelling the future of solar panel manufacturing. These technologies empower real-time monitoring, predictive maintenance, and quality control, ensuring that panels perform optimally throughout their lifespan. This smart manufacturing paradigm has the potential to minimize downtime, reduce waste, and enhance overall system reliability.

Moreover, sustainable practices are gaining prominence, addressing not only the energy output of solar panels but also the environmental footprint of their production. The adoption of eco-friendly materials and responsible sourcing practices resonates with the growing emphasis on holistic sustainability.


In conclusion, the journey from sand to sunlight, from raw materials to energy generation, reveals the remarkable process behind the creation of solar panels. The seemingly straightforward and well-known technology of solar panels conceals a sophisticated interplay of science and engineering.

Amid this interplay of science and engineering, the driving force of innovation continually reshapes the landscape of solar panel production. Cutting-edge advancements in materials science, manufacturing techniques, and automation constantly push the boundaries of efficiency and sustainability.